Saturday, March 9, 2013

England Repeals Slavery Abolition Act of 1833

England has repealed the slavery abolition act of 1833 in 1998.

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (citation 3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) was an 1833 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire (with the exceptions "of the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company," the "Island of Ceylon," and "the Island of Saint Helena", which exceptions were eliminated in 1843).[1] The Act was repealed in 1998 as part of a wider rationalisation of English statute law, but later anti-slavery legislation remains in force.
 
The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 was repealed in its entirety under the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1998.[15][16] However, this repeal has not made slavery legal again, as sections of the Slave Trade Act 1824, Slave Trade Act 1843 and Slave Trade Act 1873 are still in force. In addition the Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates into British Law Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights which prohibits the holding of persons as slaves 

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_Abolition_Act_1833

Jews Financed William the Conqueror?

According to the Jewish Communities and Record Site, Jews were brought into England after the Norman Conquest of 1066:
 
Jews began to settle in England shortly after the Norman Conquest in 1066, the first group brought over from Rouen by William the Conqueror. They escaped the massacres that Continental European Jewry witnessed during the period of the first and second crusades and, despite occasional manifestations of anti-Jewish sentiment (including the prototype of the ritual murder accusation) and the imposition of periodic fines and special levies, initially their numbers and prosperity increased under the protection of the king. The era of prosperity and relative calm ended in 1189, on the death of King Henry II and the coronation of his son, King Richard I, when English Jewry became subject to outbreaks of extreme violence and increasingly more repression measures, stimulated by the third crusade, culminating in the expulsion of the impoverished Jews by King Edward I in 1290, at which time they may have numbered as many as 16,000 souls. It was to be over 350 years before they would be permitted to return.
 
 
According to another site, Jewish Bankers financed Wiliam the Conqueror. I would have to agree and will seek to find more solid evidence of this. The concern of kings over allowing jews to come into England while at the same time, murdering off Irish and native Celts in Scottland and England makes no sense, unless of course those kings were Jewish or were paid off by jews. 
 
There is no evidence of Jews residing in England before the Norman Conquest. William the Conqueror was financed by Jews expelled from Spain, and having secured the benevolent neutrality of Holy Roman emperor Henry IV and with solemn approval by Pope Alexander II, he invaded England in 1066 (Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol # 23, p. 609). He brought 2,600 Jews into England with him from Rouen (William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum Anglorum, The History of the English Kings, p. 500). They were at first treated with special favour and allowed to amass considerable wealth, "They brought to England their own form of commerce and a system of rules to facilitate and govern it . . ." (Footnote 11: H.C. Richardson, The English Jewry Under Angevin Kings (1960) p. 94). They established the Exchequer and subsequently converted into a class of "royal usurers" so abhorrent to the English that in 1290 Edward I expelled them all, over 16,000 Jews, principally owing to the problem of usury. (See the trilogy of historian Sir Arthur Bryant, JCR-UK - Jewish Communities of the U.K., and jewishencyclopedia.com).
 
 
 
Further evidence indicates travel to the Americas before Columbus, by Templars, as symbols were carved in stone throughout the Americas, such as the hooked X, that indicate a templar journey during the 1300s.  It was well known that the Irish were travelling to America for thousands of years as well as the Vikings.  It is also now known that Solutrean artifacts have been found along the East coast of America that date back to over 15,000 years which means native Celtic people had lived in the Americas over 15,000 years ago.  It is time to take a critical look at who was/is behind the slave trade and how it connects with the exterminations of the Irish, native Scottish and British, and Native Americans.  It is also time to take a critical look at what religions promote slavery and why these religions are allowed in countries that have had laws enacted against slavery or in the case of America had a civil war over slavery.  All of these religions that promote slavery in America are illegal and violate 13th amendment rights.  So why are they tolerated? 
 
 
Sources:
 
 
 
 
 

Tuesday, March 5, 2013

Over 1/2 million dead Irish and over 100,000 Irish Slaves

According to the BBC site:

The destruction of war was evident everywhere. Dr William Petty, the Army’s Physician-General, estimated that 504,000 native Irish and 112,000 colonists and English troops had perished between 1641 and 1652. Petty reckoned that another 100,000 Irish men, women and children had been forcibly transported to the colonies in the West Indies and in North America.

 
William Petty was Oliver Cromwell's Chief Physician.  Historians estimate an Irish population of 1.4 million before Oliver Cromwell decimated the Irish population.  So almost 1/2 the population was killed or sent into slavery.  This was genocide.



Source:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/ashorthistory/archive/intro99.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Petty

Oliver Cromwell, Irish Slavery and Massacre, and Jewish Involvement?




Oliver Cromwell is credited with helping to ship the Irish into slavery as well as slaughter them and steal their land.  According to wikipedia:

Oliver Cromwell(25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658)[1] was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
 
Born into the middle gentry, Cromwell was relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life. After undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, he became an independent puritan, taking a generally (but not completely) tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period.[2] An intensely religious man—a self-styled Puritan Moses—he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640–49) Parliaments. He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces.
Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649–53) he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649–50. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country – bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics (a significant minority in England and Scotland but the vast majority in Ireland), and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651.
On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament, before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland from 16 December 1653.[3] As a ruler he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. After his death in 1658 he was buried in Westminster Abbey, but after the Royalists returned to power in 1660 they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.
Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Hume as quoted by David Sharp,[4] but a hero of liberty by others such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, Cromwell was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time.[5] However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterised by some as genocidal or near-genocidal,[6] and in Ireland his record is harshly criticised.[7]
 
Cromwell led an Irish and Scottish campaign and it was at that time that many Irish were murdered or shippd off into slavery.

Cromwell led a Parliamentary invasion of Ireland from 1649–50. Parliament's key opposition was the military threat posed by the alliance of the Irish Confederate Catholics and English royalists (signed in 1649). The Confederate-Royalist alliance was judged to be the biggest single threat facing the Commonwealth. However, the political situation in Ireland in 1649 was extremely fractured: there were also separate forces of Irish Catholics who were opposed to the royalist alliance, and Protestant royalist forces that were gradually moving towards Parliament. Cromwell said in a speech to the army Council on 23 March that "I had rather be overthrown by a Cavalierish interest than a Scotch interest; I had rather be overthrown by a Scotch interest than an Irish interest and I think of all this is the most dangerous".[39]
Cromwell's hostility to the Irish was religious as well as political. He was passionately opposed to the Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of papal and clerical authority, and which he blamed for suspected tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe.[40] Cromwell's association of Catholicism with persecution was deepened with the Irish Rebellion of 1641. This rebellion, although intended to be bloodless, was marked by massacres of English and Scottish Protestant settlers by Irish and Old English, and Highland Scot Catholics in Ireland. These settlers had settled on land seized from former, native Catholic owners to make way for the non-native Protestants. These factors contributed to the brutality of the Cromwell military campaign in Ireland.[41]
Parliament had planned to re-conquer Ireland since 1641 and had already sent an invasion force there in 1647. Cromwell's invasion of 1649 was much larger and, with the civil war in England over, could be regularly reinforced and re-supplied. His nine-month military campaign was brief and effective, though it did not end the war in Ireland. Before his invasion, Parliamentarian forces held only outposts in Dublin and Derry. When he departed Ireland, they occupied most of the eastern and northern parts of the country. After his landing at Dublin on 15 August 1649 (itself only recently defended from an Irish and English Royalist attack at the Battle of Rathmines), Cromwell took the fortified port towns of Drogheda and Wexford to secure logistical supply from England. At the Siege of Drogheda in September 1649, Cromwell's troops killed nearly 3,500 people after the town's capture—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including some civilians, prisoners and Roman Catholic priests.[42][unreliable source?] Cromwell wrote afterwards that:
"I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgment of God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands in so much innocent blood and that it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which are satisfactory grounds for such actions, which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret.[43]"
At the Siege of Wexford in October, another massacre took place under confused circumstances. While Cromwell was apparently trying to negotiate surrender terms, some of his soldiers broke into the town, killed 2,000 Irish troops and up to 1,500 civilians, and burned much of the town.[44] No disciplinary actions were taken against his forces subsequent to this second massacre.
After the taking of Drogheda, Cromwell sent a column north to Ulster to secure the north of the country and went on to besiege Waterford, Kilkenny and Clonmel in Ireland's south-east. Kilkenny surrendered on terms, as did many other towns like New Ross and Carlow, but Cromwell failed to take Waterford, and at the siege of Clonmel in May 1650 he lost up to 2,000 men in abortive assaults before the town surrendered.[45]
One of his major victories in Ireland was diplomatic rather than military. With the help of Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, Cromwell persuaded the Protestant Royalist troops in Cork to change sides and fight with the Parliament.[46] At this point, word reached Cromwell that Charles II had landed in Scotland and been proclaimed king by the Covenanter regime. Cromwell therefore returned to England from Youghal on 26 May 1650 to counter this threat.[47]
The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland dragged on for almost three years after Cromwell's departure. The campaigns under Cromwell's successors Henry Ireton and Edmund Ludlow mostly consisted of long sieges of fortified cities and guerrilla warfare in the countryside. The last Catholic-held town, Galway, surrendered in April 1652 and the last Irish troops capitulated in April of the following year.[45]
In the wake of the Commonwealth's conquest, the public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were killed when captured.[48][unreliable source?] All Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to Scottish and English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers. The remaining Catholic landowners were allocated poorer land in the province of Connacht—this led to the Cromwellian attributed phrase "To hell or to Connacht". Under the Commonwealth, Catholic landownership dropped from 60% of the total to just 8%.
On the other hand, the worst atrocities committed in Ireland, such as mass evictions, killings and deportation of over 50,000 men, women and children as prisoners of war and indentured servants[53] to Bermuda and Barbados, were carried out under the command of other generals after Cromwell had left for England.[54] However other historians would argue that ultimately he was the commander of these generals. Some point to his actions on entering Ireland. Cromwell demanded that no supplies were to be seized from the civilian inhabitants and that everything should be fairly purchased; "I do hereby warn....all Officers, Soldiers and others under my command not to do any wrong or violence toward Country People or any persons whatsoever, unless they be actually in arms or office with the enemy.....as they shall answer to the contrary at their utmost peril." However it should be noted that he landed in Dublin, a city with no Catholic population as they had been previously expelled. Several English soldiers were hanged for disobeying these orders.

While Cromwell was off killing and slaving Irish, he strangely had a yearning to help more Jews come into England and convert them to Christianity.

There was interest in Jewish matters in the leadership of the Commonwealth and Protectorate for two reasons, one pragmatic and the other doctrinal. The pragmatic reason was that based on the international trade and commercial connections of the Amsterdam Jewish community it was recognised that a strong Jewish presence in London would be advantageous. With flourishing links to the East and West Indies and to the New World Jewish traders in London could make the city to Amsterdam as a commercial centre.
The doctrinal reason was the belief amongst godly Protestants, including Cromwell, that the conversion of the Jews to Christianity was essential before Christ would return to reign on earth. 1656 was thought by some to be the actual year in which this would happen.
 
 
What saddens me the most is that most Irish Heritage Centers and sites are completely silent about this past of the Irish people.  Why are they silent?  The Irish slaves and slaughter must be remembered and talked about.

The commercial policy that led to the Navigation Act in October 1651, made Oliver Cromwell want to attract the rich Jews of Amsterdam to London so that they might transfer their important trade interests with the Spanish Main from Holland to England. The mission of Oliver St John to Amsterdam, though failing to establish a coalition between English and Dutch commercial interests as an alternative to the Navigation Act, had negotiated with Menasseh Ben Israel and the Amsterdam community. A pass was granted to Menasseh to enter England, but he was unable to use it because of the war between England and Holland, which lasted from 1652 to 1654.
As soon as the war ceased, Menasseh Ben Israel sent his brother-in-law, David Abravanel Dormido, to London to present to the council a petition for the readmission of Jews. The council, however, refused to act. Cromwell therefore induced Menasseh himself to come over to London, which he did at the end of September 1655, and there he printed his "humble address" to Cromwell. As a consequence, a national conference was summoned at Whitehall in the early part of December, which included some of the most eminent lawyers, clergymen, and merchants in the country. The lawyers declared no opposition to the Jews' residing in England, but both the clergymen and merchants were opposed to readmission, leading Cromwell to stop the discussion to prevent an adverse decision.
Early in the following year (1656), the question came to a practical issue through the declaration of war against Spain, which resulted in the arrest of Antonio Rodrigues Robles, and forced the Marranos of London to avow their Judaism as a means of avoiding arrest as Spaniards and the confiscation of their goods. As a final result, Cromwell appears to have given informal permission to the Jews to reside and trade in England on condition that they did not obtrude their worship on public notice and that they refrained from making proselytes. Using this permission, Antonio Fernandez Carvajal and Simon de Caceres purchased a piece of land for a Jewish cemetery in 1657, and Solomon Dormido, a nephew of Menasseh Ben Israel, was admitted to the Royal Exchange as a duly licensed broker of the City of London, without taking the usual oath involving a statement of faith in Christianity. Carvajal had previously been granted letters of denization for himself and his son, which guaranteed certain rights of citizenship. 

Please read the rest here:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resettlement_of_the_Jews_in_England


We need to find out who owned the slave ships that sent the Irish to hell.  I'll be looking for  that information.

 
 
Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell

http://www.olivercromwell.org/jews.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resettlement_of_the_Jews_in_England

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menasseh_Ben_Israel


Laudabiliter Translation

Literal translation by Laurence Ginnell


Adrian, Bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his dearest son in Christ, the illustrious King of the English, greeting and apostolical benediction.

Your Majesty quite laudably and profitably considers how to extend the glory of your name on earth and increase the reward of eternal happiness in Heaven, when, as a Catholic Prince, you propose to extend the limits of the Church, to announce the truth of the Christian faith to ignorant and barbarous nations, and to root out the weeds of vice from the field of the Lord ; and the more effectually to accomplish this you implore the counsel and favour of the Apostolic See. In which matter we are confident that the higher your aim, and the greater the discretion with which you proceed, the happier, with God's help, will be your success; because those things that originate in the ardour of faith and the love of religion are always wont to arrive at a good issue and end.

Certainly Hibernia and all the islands upon which Christ the Sun of Justice has shone, and which have accepted the doctrines of the Christian faith, of right belong, as your Highness doth acknowledge, to blessed Peter and the Holy Roman Church. Wherefore we the more willingly sow in them a faithful plantation and a seed pleasing to God, in as much as we know by internal examination that it will be strictly required of us. You have signified to us, dearest son in Christ, that you desire to enter the island of Hibernia to subject that people to laws, and to root out therefrom the weeds of vice; also that you desire to pay from every house an annual pension ,of one penny to blessed Peter, and to preserve ,the rights of the churches of that land inviolate and whole.

We, therefore, regarding with due favour your pious and laudable desire, and according a gracious assent to your petition, deem it pleasing and acceptable that, for the purpose of extending the limits of the Church, checking the torrent of wickedness, reforming evil manners, sowing seeds of virtue, and increasing the Christian religion, you should enter that island and execute whatever shall be conducive to the honour of God and the salvation of that land. And let the people of that land receive you honourably and reverence you as lord, the rights of the churches remaining indisputably inviolate and whole, and the annual pension of one penny from every house being reserved to blessed Peter and the Holy Roman Church.

If, therefore, you will carry to completion what with a mind so disposed you have conceived, study to form that people to good morals, and, as well by yourself as by those whom you shall find qualified for the purpose by faith, word, and conduct, so act that the Church may be adorned, that the religion of the Christian faith may be planted and may increase; and let all that concerns the honour of God and the salvation of souls be ordered in such manner that you may deserve to obtain from God a plentiful, everlasting reward, and on earth succeed in acquiring a name glorious for ages.



Sources:

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Laudabiliter

http://www.libraryireland.com/HullHistory/Appendix1a.php

Crown Act of Ireland 1542



Crown of Ireland Act 1542


1542 CHAPTER 1 33 Hen 8


An Act that the King of England, his Heirs and Successors, be Kings of Ireland.

[I.]


The King’s highnesse, his heyres and successours, Kings of England, be alwayes Kings of Ireland, and that his Majestie, his heyres and successours, have the name, stile, title, and honour of King of Ireland, with all maner honours, preheminences, prerogatives, dignities, and other things whatsoever they be to the estate and majestie of a King imperiall appertayning or belonging; and that his majestie, his heyres and successours, be from henceforth named, called, accepted, reputed, and taken to be Kings of Ireland, to have, hold and enjoy the said stile, title, majestie, and honours of King of Ireland, with all maner preheminences, prerogatives, dignities, and all other the premisses unto the King’s highnesse, his heyres and successours for ever, as united and knit to the imperial crown of England.




High treason by writing, deed, print, or act to occasion disturbance to his crown of Ireland, in name, stile, &c. The forfeiture. Saving the rights of others.


And if anie person or persons, of what estate, dignitie, or condition soever they or he be, subject, or resiant within Ireland, by writing or imprinting, or by any exterior act or deede, maliciously procure or doe, or cause to be procured or done, any thing or things to the perill of the King’s majesties most royall person, or maliciously give occasion by writing, deede, print, or act, whereby the King’s majestie, his heyres or successors, or any of them might be disturbed or interrupted of the crown of Ireland, or of the name, stile, or title thereof, or by writing, deede, print, or act, procure or doe, or cause to be procured or done, any thing or things, to the prejudice, slaunder, disturbance, or derogation of the King’s majestie, his heyres or successors, in, of or for the crowne of Ireland, or in, of or for the name, title, or stile thereof, whereby his Majestie, his heyres or successors, or any of them might be disturbed or interrupted in body, name, stile, or title of inheritance, of, in, or to the crowne of Ireland, or of the name, stile, title, or dignitie of the same, that then every such person and persons, of what estate, degree or condition they be, subject or resiants within Ireland, and their aidours, counsaylours, mainteyners, and abbetours therein, and everie of them, for everie such offence, shall be adjudged high traytors, and everie such offence shall be adjudged and deemed high treason, and the offendours, their aydors, counsailours, maintaynours, and abbetours therein, and every of them being lawfully convicted of any such offence, by presentment, verdict, confession, or proofes, according to the customes and laws of Ireland, [F1be liable to imprisonment for life], as in cases of high treason; and also shall lose and forfeit unto the King’s highnesse, and to his heyres, Kings ofIreland, all such his mannors, landes, tenements, rents, reversions, annuities, and hereditaments, which they had in possession as owner, and were sole seised in their own right, of, by, or in any title or meanes, or in any other person or persons, had to their use of any estate of inheritance, at the day of any such treason and offences by them committed and done. And that also every such offendour shall lose and forfeit to the King’s highnesse, and to his said heyres, as well all manner such estates of freehold, and interest for yeares of lands and rents, as all the goods, cattels and debts, which they or any of them had, at the time of their conviction or attaindour of, or for any such offence, saving alway to every person and persons, and bodies politique, their heyres, successours, and assignes, and to every of them, other then such persons as shall be so convicted or attainted, their heyres and successours, and all other clayming to their use, all such right, title, use, interest, possession, condition, rents, fees, offices, annuities, commons and profites, which they or any of them shall happen to have, in, to or upon any such manors, lands, tenements, rents, reversions, services, annuities, and hereditaments, which so shall happen to be lost and forfeited, by reason and occasion of any of the treasons or offences above rehearsed, any time before the said treasons or offences committed or done.



Sources:

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/aip/Hen8/33/1/contents

http://www.yourirish.com/introduction-of-the-crown-of-ireland-act-1542

Anti-Irish Sentiment after Irish Slavery in America

Even though laws were enacted to alledgely end white slavery, the anti-Irish sentiment in America continued well in the late 1800s.  Often times, signs were hung outside of establishments saying "No Irish Welcome" and "No Irish or Dogs" or "Irish need not Apply".  This would be equivalent to the "White Only" signs of segration days.  Here is a political cartoon of an Irish man shown as a drunk ape sitting on a barrel of gun powder:


 
American political cartoon by Thomas Nast titled "The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things", depicting a drunken Irishman lighting a powder keg and swinging a bottle. Published 1871-09-02 in Harper's Weekly
 
 
 
According to wikipedia:
 
Negative English attitudes towards the Gaelic Irish and their culture date as far back as the reign of Henry II of England. In 1155 Pope Adrian IV issued the papal bull called Laudabiliter, that gave Henry permission to conquer Ireland as a means of strengthening the Papacy's control over the Irish Church.[10] Pope Adrian called the Irish a "rude and barbarous" nation. Thus, the Norman invasion of Ireland began in 1169 with the backing of the Papacy. Pope Alexander III, who was Pope at the time of the invasion, ratified the Laudabiliter and gave Henry dominion over Ireland. He likewise called the Irish a "barbarous nation" with "filthy practises".[11]
 
Even the Catholic church betrayed the Irish and still do today as story after story comes out about child abuse in Catholic institutions.  Irish people were compared with apes and said to be raging drunks.  White slavery still exists today as millions of children and young adults are kidnapped and forced into prostitution or even raped within institutions (see Tory pedophile scandals).
 
After almost four centuries, following the declaration of the independence of the Church of England from papal supremacy and rejection of the authority of Rome, a new basis for the English monarch's legitimate claim to the rule of Ireland was needed: the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 therefore established a sovereign Kingdom of Ireland with Henry being given the title of King of Ireland. There has been some controversy over the authenticity of the Laudabiliter.
As a result of the Irish War of Independence, most of Ireland left the United Kingdom in 1922 and became the Irish Free State, an independent country which still retained the British monarch as its head of state. The remaining six north-eastern counties continued as Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom, but with their own parliament and system of government. Despite these fundamental changes, the 16th-century Act remained unamended on the statute books.
The Irish Free State adopted a republican constitution in 1937, although its remaining ties with the British monarchy were not formally broken until 1949. However, the Tudor Act remained on the republic's statute books until formally repealed in 1962.[4]
 
 
Sources: